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Chemical Machinery and categories

By Thomas Huang December 5th, 2023 103 views
Contents

I, Definition of chemical machinery

They include the machinery that processes raw materials into certain specifications of the finished products, by raw materials pretreatment, chemical reactions, reaction products of the separation, and refining.

II, Categories of chemical machinery:

2.1 Classified by state of motion on machinery's part:

2.1.1 Chemical Machines

Chemical machines mainly refer to machines, whose main parts are moving. 
2.1.1.1 Typical Appearance of Chemical Machines
2.1.1.1.1 Material treatment machines
Various filters, crushers, centrifugal separators, rotary kilns, rotary dryers, agitators (mixers), and fluid-conveying machinery.

photo of various filters, crushers, centrifugal separators, rotary kilns

photo of rotary dryers, agitators (mixers) and fluid-conveying machinery
Fluid conveying machinery:
Usually, the machinery for liquid transport is called pumps, including high-pressure pumps, circulating pumps, centrifugal pumps, and explosion-proof pumps.
The pumps are mainly used to transport liquids such as water, oil, acid and alkali liquids, emulsions, suspensions, and liquid metals. They can also transport liquid and gas mixtures and liquids containing suspended solids.
Photo of pumps using in chemical industry
The machines for gas transporting are called ventilators, blowers, compressors, and vacuum pumps according to the high and low pressures they produce.
Photo of machinery for gas transporting

2.1.1.1.2 Refrigeration and heating machines:

Molten salt furnace, oil bath furnace, high-and-low-temperature circulation machine, electromagnetic heating equipment, and infrared heating equipment.
photo of cooling and heating machines

2.1.1.1.3 Motor:

DC motor, AC motor, and their Explosion-proof motors.
Photo of Motors

2.1.1.1.4 Reducer:

The reducer is a reduction transmission machine used between the prime mover and the working machine.
 Name  Type  Speed Ratio  Features
 Steering box  single shaft, double transverse shaft, single longitudinal shaft, and double longitudinal shaft  1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1  They can be operated forward and reverse, and the transmission is smooth at low or high speeds.
 Planetary reducers  Straight-tooth planetary reducers and helical-tooth planetary reducers  5 to 200  Planetary reducers are suitable for equipment in chemical plants that require precision control and fast response. 
 Hard Gear Reducers  As per the types of gear: Helical Gear, Cylindrical Gear, Bevel Gear, Planetary Gear  5 to 10  Hard gear reducers are very practical for equipment of chemical processes where small and medium batch production and high-density production are required, e.g. bottle production lines, cap rotators, etc.
 Worm and Worm Gear Reducer  As per the type of worm:
Cylindrical, Circular, Bevel, and Worm-Gear
 5 to 100  It has a compact structure and, a large transmission ratio, but low transmission efficiency, suitable for small power, clearance work occasions in chemical machinery purposes.
 Cycloid reducer  Right-angle type, swashplate type, suspension type, parallel shaft type   9、11、17、23、29、35、43、59、71、87 High reduction ratio. one-stage transmission is 9~87, wo-stage transmission is 121~5133, and the multi-stage combination can reach tens of thousands. Compact structure. Low noise.
 Three-ring reducer  11 to 99  It has the advantages of high torque, smooth operation, big transmission ratio, and good overload performance.
 Induction reducer Mechanical, hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled wet friction discs  Induction reducer manual speed change ratio is 1:5
 It is usually used for reactor mixing, widely used in occasions that require multi-variable process parameters and continuous change of speed.

photo of reducers
2.1.1.1.5 Intelligent control equipment

PLC controller, PID controller.
They can monitor and control the chemical processes as per the programming.
photo of PLC controller and PID controller
2.1.1.2 Difference between Chemical Machines and Universal Machines

Chemical machines generally use standard specification products, and the division with machinery for other fields is not very strict. For example, some pumps are used in chemical processes but also can be used as general equipment in other industrial sectors.

2.1.2 Chemical equipment


Chemical equipment mainly refers to the parts that are static machinery, also called non-standard chemical machinery.
2.1.2.1 Types of Chemical Equipment

There are many kinds of chemical equipment, classification method has a variety of ways and means.
2.1.2.1.1 As per the function:
2.1.2.1.1.1 Separation tower:
packing tower, floating valve tower, bubble tower, turntable tower, etc. photo of Separation tower
2.1.2.1.1.2 Chemical containers:
vessels, tanks, kettles, and so on.
photo of Chemical containers
2.1.2.1.1.3 Reactor:
tubular reactor, fluidized reactor, fixed bed reactor, stirred kettle reactor, etc. Tubular reactor
It is the chemical equipment that is made for the chemical reaction to occur inside the tube or tubes.
This type of reactor is available in a wide range of sizes from 0.1 liters to thousands of cubic meters. 
photo of Tubular reactor
Fluidized reactor
photo of Fluidized reactor

Fixed bed reactor
photo of fixed reactor Fixed bed reactor

Stirred kettle reactor
photo of Stirred kettle reactor
The stirred kettle reactors are usually used in batch production. 
Reactors made by WHGCM:
WHGCM could make the tubular reactor and stirred reactor from the scale of 0.10  liters to 20,000.00 liters.
photo of Reactors made by WHGCM
2.1.2.1.1.4 Heat exchanger:
This is chemical equipment for heating and cooling purposes. Compared with the cooling and heating machines mentioned above, the heat exchanger introduced here is customized and fabricated for large industrial applications. Plate heat exchanger
photo of Plate heat exchanger
Tube heat exchanger
photo of Tube heat exchanger

Coil heat exchanger
photo of Coil heat exchanger
The plate and tube heat exchanger are equipment mainly used for large-scale industry, while the coil heat exchange is equipment mostly assembled inside the stirred reactor for batch production purposes for medium or small-scale production.
 2.1.2.1.1.5 Heating furnace:
electric heating furnace, tube cracking furnace, waste heat boiler, and so on;
2.1.2.1.1.6 Crystallization equipment:
solution crystallizer, melt crystallizer, etc.
2.1.2.1.1.7 Various other specialized chemical equipment, etc.
2.1.2.1.2 As per the structure of the material:
Carbon steel equipment, stainless steel equipment, non-ferrous metal equipment, and non-metallic equipment.
2.1.2.1.3 As per work pressure:
high-pressure equipment, medium-pressure equipment vacuum equipment, atmospheric pressure equipment.

2.2 Classified by applications:

Chemical machinery can be broadly divided into the following categories: grinding series (sand mill, colloid mill, ball mill, three-roller mill, etc.) coating complete sets of equipment; kneading series; mixing and dispersing series; reaction series; emulsification series; mixing series; dry mortar equipment; filtration series, etc.

III, Roles of Chemical Machinery

The normal operation of the chemical production process, product quality yield control, and guarantee are highly determined by the performance of a variety of chemical machinery.

IV, Selection of chemical equipment

The selection of chemical equipment shall adapt to the needs of chemical production and detailed calculations of the entire chemical production process.

V, Characteristics of Chemical Machinery

The whole set of chemical machinery consists of chemical equipment, chemical machines, and other components such as chemical instrumentation, chemical piping, valves, etc.
To ensure the safe, stable, and reliable production of the whole set of facilities, the chemical machinery is required to have the following properties.
photo of chemical machinery as per design caculation

5.1 Adaptability.

Chemical machinery needs to adapt to properties, quantity, process characteristics, production scale, and so on.

5.2 Compatibility.

A set of chemical machinery, regardless of continuous and batch production, is composed of a variety of equipment and machines, so the requirements between chemical machines and other equipment, including piping, valves, instruments, meters, electrical circuits, and other fittings need to have a reliable synergy and adaptability.

5.3 Practicality.

The chemical machinery should have sufficient sealing performance and mechanical strength in the structure of the material and strength under the conditions of the normal temperature, pressure, flow, corrosive properties of materials, and other operating conditions.
It also requires significant capabilities to withstand, prevent, and solve emergencies, to deal with possible abnormalities, and even the possible extreme conditions.

5.4 Durability.

No matter whether continuous or batch chemical production units need to be operated for a long time. Therefore, the machinery's life must be long by ensuring the wear, corrosion, and other factors of the chemical machinery.

5.5 High efficiency.

Optimize the chemical machinery materials, selection, costs, efficiency, and energy consumption, at the same of meeting the above conditions.

5.6 Versatility.

Most chemical machinery with various structures and performances are also applicable to industries such as oil refining, light industry, food, and so on.

VI, Applications:

6.1 For large-scale chemical plants

photo of large-scale chemical plants

6.1.1 Organic chemical plant:

The chemical machinery used in this field is mainly for the production of organic compounds, such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, acids, lipids, etc., mainly used in plastics, coatings, pharmaceuticals, food, pesticides, and other fields.

6.1.2 Inorganic chemical plant:

The machinery is for the production of inorganic compounds, such as salt, alkali, metal salts, phosphates, etc., mainly used in detergents, glass, ceramics, metal processing, and other fields.

6.1.3 Chemical raw materials factory:

The machinery is to produce a variety of chemical raw materials, such as petroleum, natural gas, coal, ammonia, methanol, benzene, etc., mainly used in the chemical industry, energy industry, transport industry, and other fields.

6.2 For Small chemical plants:

photo of samll-scale chemical plants

6.2.1 Detergent production:

The chemical machinery can produce washing powder, washing liquid, detergent, and other products. 

6.2.2 Food additives production:

The machinery can produce acidifiers, sweeteners, flavors, and other products. 

6.2.3 Cosmetic production:

The products made by the chemical machinery include cosmetics, personal care products, and other products.

6.2.4 Paint and coating production:

The set of machinery can make paint, paint, and other products.

6.2.5 Cleaning agent production:

The machinery used in this field can produce cleaning agents, disinfectants, and other products.

6.2.6 Pharmaceutical intermediates production:

The machines and equipment for this application are for the production of pharmaceutical intermediates, such as amino acids, vitamins, and so on.

6.2.7 Organic chemicals production:

The chemical machinery of this application is producing organic chemicals, such as insecticides, dyes, resins, etc.

6.2.8 Functional chemicals production:

The equipment and machines are able to produce functional chemicals, such as polymer materials, special gases, and so on in this field.

VII, Cutlines of chemical machinery

Each type of chemical equipment has its own cutline on the drawings.

7.1 Tower (Code T)

Cutline of Towers
             Packed tower                                Plate tower                           Spraying tower

7.2 Tower internals

cutline of Tower internals 1
    Downcomer                              Seal pan                                Floating valve tray             Bubble cap plate     

cutline of Tower internals 2
     Grille board                 Standpipe          Turbulent ball tower      Sieve plate tower tray     Wire mesh demister 

cutline of Tower internals 3
                         Distributor sprayer                                                 Filler demister layer     

7.3 Reactor (code R)

cutline of Reactor (code R)
 Fixed-bed reactor  Tubular reactor Fluidized-bed reactor         Reactors with agitator,  jacked, and coil            

7.4 Industrial furnace (code F)

cutline of Industrial furnace
   Batch-type furnace                                             Cylindrical furnace

7.5 Torch chimney (code S)

cutline of Torch chimney
                 Chimney                                    Torch

7.6 Heat Exchanger (code E)

cutline of Heat Exchanger
  Heat exchanger diagram                   fixed tube sheet heat exchanger                    U-tube heat exchanger  

cutline of Heat Exchanger 2
 Float head heat-exchanger              Kettle Reboiler             Plate heat exchanger    Spiral-plate heat exchanger

cutline of Heat Exchanger 3
  Fintube exchanger                             Coil heat exchanger                   Spray cooler

cutline of Heat Exchanger 4
Scraped film evaporator   Film evaporator             Exhaust air cooler           Air supply air cooler         Finned tube heat exchanger

7.7 Pump (code P)

cutline of  Pump (code P) 1
Centrifugal pump  Water ring vacuum pump  Rotary gear pump                         Screw pump

cutline of  Pump (code P) 2
Diaphragm pump    Submerged pump             Jet pump                                                            Vortex pump

7.8 Compressor (code C)

cutline of Compressor (code C) 1
Air blower   Horizontal rotary compressor   Vertical rotary compressor       Reciprocating compressor

cutline of Compressor (code C) 2
 Two-stage reciprocating compressor           Four-stage reciprocating compressor

7.9 Vessel ( code V)

cutline of Vessel ( code V)
Cone roof tank            Underground pool                                 Floater                  Dome cone bottom container  

cutline of Vessel ( code V) 2
Dished heads vessel  Flat-top sealed can       Dry gas holder              Wet gas holder           Spherical tank

cutline of Vessel ( code V) 3
                                        Horizontal vessel                                                 Filler demister    Wire mesh demister  

cutline of Vessel ( code V) 4
     Cyclone separator       Dry electrostatic precipitator     Wet electrostatic precipitator   Fixed bed filter   Filter with filter cartridge

7.10 Equipment interior accessories

cutline of Equipment interior accessories
 Vortex breaker  Insert tube vortex breaker Baffle plate            Heating or cooling components         Agitator    

7.11 Lifting and transportation machinery (code L)

cutline of Lifting and transportation machinery (code L) 1
 Chain hoist (with trolley)      Electric hoist                  single-beam crane(manual)   single-beam crane(Electric )

cutline of Lifting and transportation machinery (code L) 2
   Cantilever crane                                     Overhead crane with hook                     Belt conveyor

cutline of Lifting and transportation machinery (code L) 3
              Scraper conveyor                          Bucket elevator                       Handcart

7.12 Weighing machinery (code W)

cutline of Weighing machinery (code W)
    Belt type constant feed weigher                             Ground scale

7.13 Other machinery (code M)

cutline of Other machinery (code M)  1
          Filter press                                         Rotary drum filter                                 Perforated shell centrifuge

cutline of Other machinery (code M)  2
       Solid wall centrifuge                                 Screw filter press                                  Extruding machine

cutline of Other machinery (code M)  3
           Kneader                                        Mixer

7.14 Power machine

cutline of Power machine
        Motor                   Engine                    Steam turbine      Other power machines       Centrifugal turbine     Piston Expander    
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