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Why is it so important to maintain safety when running a reactor?

By WHGCM September 28th, 2023 119 views
Occasionally, there was a media report that "a Hydrogenation reactor explodes and sends a worker flying, or just out of existence."
There are also gossips that some operators of high-pressure reactors have been involved in such accidents.
This can give people the impression that both types of reactors are very dangerous.

In fact, in industrial production, many more chemical reactor accidents occur at the conventional reactor with atmospheric pressure that people think is most safe!


WHY IS THIS HAPPENING?

This is to start with the design and structure of these three kinds of reactors.

First of all, let's talk about the high pressure reactor.

As the name suggests, high pressure reactor is for high pressure reaction reactor. Because of the high-pressure characteristics of the high-pressure reactor, both manufacturers, users and government regulators will pay special attention to its safety.
Government regulators will set up a special production license, only the fabricator who has obtained the production license can legally produce high-pressure reactors. In addition, a reactor from the design to the production process, to the completion, as well as all the testing and inspection, there should be official documents to prove. And each high pressure reactor should have a Specialized Equipment No. Through this number, the responsibility can even be traced back to the individual. Without Specialized Equipment No., the high-pressure reactor is illegal. It will face huge financial penalties and even legal responsibility.
Regarding to the user in the process of using high pressure reactor, it also has the same understanding of them, that incorrect operation of the high pressure reactor will face security risks. Therefore, users will be very careful in the process of using it.

Next, let's discuss what are the hazards of hydrogenation. 
Similarly, the hydrogenation reactor, although there are times when the reaction is not completed under high pressure conditions. But because of the flammable and explosive nature of hydrogen itself. All departments and organizations involved will be very careful.
In addition, many hydrogenation reactions themselves are designed in such a way that they require a certain amount of pressure as pressure can accelerate hydrogenation. Therefore, this kind of hydrogenation reactor, can also be called high pressure reactor. But the high pressure reactor will be called a hydrogenation reactor only if hydrogen is used in the reaction.
During the design and production of a Hydrogenation reactor, the configuration is required to prevent hydrogen leakage of special components, while many conventional components are also requiring feature of explosion-proof, in particular, they can not spark.
In practice, the autoclave can be used as a hydrogenation kettle if it is equipped with an explosion-proof device.
The safety of autoclaves and hydrogenation reactors is ensured by these special designs and components. The risk of explosion is minimized.
Since the high-pressure reactor and hydrogenation reactor are so safe, then why is a relatively more simple atmospheric reactor will explode, and even the number of accidents will be far more than those two reactors?
In fact, the main reason lies in the paralysis in the process of operation. Due to the strict control of the government and manufacturers, all kinds of reactors are designed and manufactured to withstand additional pressure of about 20% more than their working pressure. Then, because the atmospheric reactor itself is under low pressure, the amount of extra pressure it is subjected to is less than that of a high-pressure reactor.
If the operator does not follow the operation procedure and reasonably controls the reaction pressure during the operation, the pressure inside the kettle will easily exceed the design pressure, which will damage the kettle and even explode.
It can be seen that in the process of using, as a user, according to the kettle instructions for correct operation is very important. The reactor itself has a safety device is certainly a layer of insurance, but the most important thing is to see how the operator uses it. Wrong use of the equipment, brings not only economic losses, and even a threat to life.
In fact, not only the reactor, all equipment is required to use in accordance with the operating procedures. Able to use the equipment correctly is a qualified operator must have the conditions.
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