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Classification and use of reactor

By WHGCM January 25th, 2024 161 views
Reactor usually has three types -atmospheric pressure, negative pressure, and high-pressure reactor as per the pressure when it works.
It is also subdivided into carbon steel, stainless steel, glass, enamel, zirconium, nickel-based and other kinds of reaction kettle, the most common is negative pressure and positive pressure reactor.
Reaction kettle is usually used in petroleum, chemical, rubber, pesticide, dyestuff, medicine, and food, used to complete the vulcanization, nitrification, hydrogenation, hydro carbonization, polymerization, condensation, and other processes.
It is also called reaction kettle, reaction tank, reaction pot, decomposition pot, and other names.
There are also single-layer, double-layer, and sandwich forms, as well as internal coils, external coils, electric heating, steam heating, and other heating methods. There is a variety of stirring methods, including paddle, anchor, mixed high, and low-speed stirring methods.
Reaction kettle materials, stirring devices, heating methods, shaft seal structure, volume size, temperature, pressure, etc. are different, and many varieties, their basic characteristics are described as follows:
   
  First, Structure
The reaction kettle structure is the same, in addition to the reaction kettle body, there are transmission devices, stirring and heating (or cooling) devices, etc., which can improve the premise of heat transfer, so that the reaction temperature is held more uniform, and does not strengthen the mass transfer process.
   
  Second, the operating pressure
The reaction kettle operating pressure is high. The pressure inside the kettle is generated by the chemical reaction or formed by the temperature rise. The pressure stability is larger, a sudden pressure occurs may exceed the normal pressure many times. So, most of the reactors are the pressurized container.
   
  Third, the operating temperature
The reactor operating temperature is high. Usually, chemical reactions must be carried out at a certain temperature, so the reaction kettle suffers both pressure and temperature. The methods of obtaining high temperatures are usually the following:
   
  1, water heating
When the requested temperature is not high can be taken, the heating system has open type and closed type two. The open type is simpler, it consists of recycle pump, water tank, pipeline, and regulator to control the valve when taking high-pressure water, the equipment's mechanical strength requirements are high, and the reaction kettle nominal surface is welded on the snake tube, snake tube, and kettle wall gaps, so that the thermal resistance increases, heat transfer consequences fall.
   
  2、Steam heating
When the heating temperature is below 100 ℃, the available steam under an atmospheric pressure to heat; is 100 ~ 180 ℃ range, with full steam; when the temperature is higher, can take high-pressure superheated steam.
   
  3、Heating with other media
If the process must be operated at high temperatures or to avoid taking a high-pressure heating system, available other media to replace water and steam, such as mineral oil (275 ~ 300 ℃), biphenyl ether mixer (boiling point 258 ℃), molten salt (140 ~ 540 ℃), liquid lead (melting point 327 ℃), etc.
   
  4、Electric heating
The resistance wire is wrapped around the insulating layer of the reactor barrel, or installed on an ad hoc insulator at several intervals from the reactor so that a small space gap is formed between the resistance wire and the reactor body.
    
The first three methods to obtain high temperature all need to add a jacket on the kettle body, because the temperature change is large, so the jacket and shell of the kettle suffer temperature change and produce temperature difference pressure. 

When using electric heating, the equipment is lighter and simpler, the temperature is easier to adjust. it is no need for pumps, furnaces, chimneys, and other facilities.  It is also very simple to start, safe, and cost-saving. But its operating cost is higher than other heating methods, the thermal efficiency is under 85%, so it is applied when the heat temperature required is below 400 ℃ and where the electrical energy prices are low.
   
  Four, stirring structure
In the reactor, a chemical reaction is usually carried out, to ensure that the reaction can be carried out evenly and faster and to improve the rate, the reactor is usually equipped with a corresponding stirring device, so it brings the problem of dynamic sealing of the drive shaft and avoids leakage.
   
  Five, Work of reactor
Reaction kettle is mostly an interrupted operation. To ensure the product quantity, each batch of material needs to be cleaned after discharge; the top of the kettle is equipped with a quick-open manhole and hand hole, which is convenient to take samples, measure the volume, check the reaction situation, and enter the vessel for internal inspection.
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